Passive Solar is simply using the Sun to provide heat into your house when you need it most and keeping it out when you don't; i.e. in during the Winter months, out during Summer.
Now on the face of it that sounds like a simple thing to achieve, but there are certain key things you need to get right to make this work well for you.
First off the property needs to have a good level of general insulation (or R-value rating) all round. No point trying to keep warm (or cool in Summer) if heat is able to freely transition in or out of the building when it likes and not when you want it to.
Secondly the property needs to be designed to be aligned along the solar East-West line with the most glass being on the side towards the Sun (South side if in the Northern hemisphere, North side if in the Southern hemisphere). This maximizes the solar collection possible.
Thirdly, you need some reliable way to exclude the Sun during the Summer months; this is best achieved with the right depth of eaves over the windows.
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