A widespread epidemic throughout an area, nation or the world.Search the Web for Pandemic
Beams made from strands of wood fiber mixed with resins and pressed into large beams.Search the Web for Parallel Strand Lumber
This is when a group of electrical devices, such as PV modules, are wired together to increase ampage, whilst the voltage remains constant.Search the Web for Parallel Wiring
In climate modeling, this term refers to the technique of representing processes that cannot be explicitly resolved at the resolution of the model (sub-grid scale processes) by the relationships between the area averaged effect of such sub-gird scale processes and the larger scale flow.Search the Web for Parametrization
A Passive House is a house designed to use Passive Solar Design principals to drastically reduce its energy demands by making full use of the energy supplied by the Sun, this thereby reduces ecological footprint of the building.
Passive solar design refers to the use of the sun's energy for the heating and cooling of living spaces. With this approach, the building itself or some element of it takes advantage of natural energy characteristics in materials and air created by exposure to the sun.
Passive systems are simple, have few moving parts, and require minimal maintenance and require no mechanical systems. Often the thermal characteristics of materials are extensively used, often termed as Thermal Mass design.
Passive Solar Energy is the energy captured by a building from the Sun and used to either heat or cool a building.
Passive ventilation is a natural ventilation system that makes use of natural forces, such as wind and thermal buoyancy, to circulate fresh air to and from an indoor space.
This is the equivalent number of hours per day when solar irradiance averages 1,000 w/m2. For example, six peak sun hours means that the energy received during total daylight hours equals the energy that would have been received had the irradiance for six hours been 1,000 w/m2. A term often used in association with solar panels.Search the Web for Peak Sun Hours
Perfluorocarbon (PFC) is a powerful greenhouse gas emitted during the production of aluminum.Search the Web for Perfluorocarbon
A fluorinated chemical thought to be a carcinogen that is turning up in
the bloodstream of humans and animals. PFOA and related
perfluorochemicals have been used for decades to make a variety of
nonstick and water-repellent products, including Teflon and other
nonstick cookware, stain treatments for carpets, waterproof clothing,
greaseproof liners of food packaging, and some personal care products.
In 2006, manufacturers reached a voluntary agreement with the U.S. EPA to eliminate almost all use of PFOA by 2015, although the use of other fluorinated chemicals will continue.
A layer of permanently frozen soil underground. An important feature of a tundra.Search the Web for Permafrost
Pesticides that do not break down chemically or break down very slowly and remain in the environment after a growing season.Search the Web for Persistent Pesticides
This is the small but not insignificant amount of energy that some of your appliances, such as your television, stereo, answering machine, and microwave oven are using when they are turned off.
Unplugging the devices when you’re not using them or plugging them into a power strip with an on/off switch is often the only way to avoid this waste of power.
Organic compounds that are byproducts of petroleum refining, tanning, and textile, dye, and resin manufacturing. Low concentrations cause taste and odor problems in water; higher concentrations can kill aquatic life and humans.Search the Web for Phenols
Premature ageing of the skin as a result of excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation.
Effects of photoageing on the skin include dryness, loss of elasticity, wrinkles, discolouration and changes in texture.Search the Web for Photoageing
Air pollution caused by chemical reactions of various pollutants emitted from different sources.Search the Web for Photochemical Smog
Photosynthesis is the metabolic pathway that converts light energy into chemical energy. This process is very important to life on Earth as nearly all life ultimately depends on it as a source of energy.Search the Web for Photosynthesis
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather over periods of time that range from decades to millions of years. It can be a change in the average weather or a change in the distribution of weather events around an average (for example, greater or fewer extreme weather events). Climate change may be limited to a specific region, or may occur across the whole Earth.
In recent usage, especially in the context of environmental policy, climate change usually refers to changes in modern climate. It may be qualified as anthropogenic climate change, more generally known as global warming.Search the Web for Photovoltaic
Used in vinyl products to make them softer and more flexible; also in cosmetics, fragrances, food wraps, and other products. In baby boys, exposure to phthalates can likely increase the risk of birth defects and hormone changes. In men, they likely increase the risk of reproductive problems and hormone changes. The U.S. government regulates industrial discharges of phthalates, but they are unregulated in food products, cosmetics, and consumer and medical products.Search the Web for Phthalates
A portion of the Earth's surface with a basically common topography and common morphology.Search the Web for Physiographic Region
Harmful to plants.Search the Web for Phytotoxic
The art of making a product break/fail after a certain amount of time. Not so soon that you blame the manufacturer, but soon enough for you to buy another one and make more profit for them.Search the Web for Planned Obsolesence
A grouping of plant species, or a plant community, that recurs across the landscape. Plant associations are used as indicators of environmental conditions such as temperature, moisture, light, etc.Search the Web for Plant Association
Geologic theory that the bending (folding) and breaking (faulting) of the solid surface of the earth results from the slow movement of large sections (plates) of that surface.Search the Web for Plate Tectonics
Cap and Trade is a market-based policy tool for protecting human health
and the environment.
A cap and trade program first sets an aggressive cap, or maximum limit, on emissions. Sources covered by the program then receive authorizations to emit in the form of emissions allowances, with the total amount of allowances limited by the cap. Each source can design its own compliance strategy to meet the overall reduction requirement, including sale or purchase of allowances, installation of pollution controls, implementation of efficiency measures, among other options. Individual control requirements are not specified under a cap and trade program, but each emissions source must surrender allowances equal to its actual emissions in order to comply. Sources must also completely and accurately measure and report all emissions in a timely manner to guarantee that the overall cap is achieved.
Also known as Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs), plug-in hybrids are similar in design to conventional Hybrids except their battery can be recharged from an external power source such as electric vehicle charging points.
As a result they can travel significant distances, typically 40 miles, using just their electric motor before their internal combustion engine kicks in.
They are being widely touted as a means of cutting carbon emissions and urban air pollution, while improving vehicle fuel efficiency to a level where cars can travel upwards of 250 miles on a single tank of fuel.
A range of new plug-in hybrids are expected to be launched over the next two years, including GM's Chevy Volt and a new version of Toyota's Prius.
Plug in hybrids are expected to be more expensive than conventional cars, however they will result in reduced fuel costs and a number of governments are offering tax breaks to try and increase consumer take up.Search the Web for Plug-in Hybrid
A cold air mass that forms in a high-latitude source region.Search the Web for Polar Air Mass
Substance, especially man-made, that pollutes or contaminates an environment.Search the Web for Pollutant
Reducing the amount of energy, materials, packaging or water in the design, manufacturing or purchasing of products or materials in an effort to increase efficient use of resources, reduce toxicity and eliminate waste.Search the Web for Pollution Prevention
Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDE), is an industrial toxic chemical used as a flame retardant in plastics, furniture and mattresses. This is being progresively banned.Search the Web for Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers
Polyculture is agriculture using multiple crops in the same space, in imitation of the diversity of natural ecosystems, and avoiding large stands of single crops, or monoculture. It includes crop rotation, multi-cropping, intercropping, companion planting, beneficial weeds, and alley cropping.Search the Web for Polyculture
Waste collected after the consumer has used and disposed of it.Search the Web for Post Consumer Waste
Postmodern Science is a 'branch' of postmodernism.
Postmodernism is "post" because it is denies the existence of any ultimate principles, and it lacks the optimism of there being a scientific, philosophical, or religious truth which will explain everything for everybody - a characterisitic of the so-called "modern" mind. The paradox of the postmodern position is that, in placing all principles under the scrutiny of its skepticism, it must realize that even its own principles are not beyond questioning. As the philospher Richard Tarnas states, postmodernism "cannot on its own principles ultimately justify itself any more than can the various metaphysical overviews against which the postmodern mind has defined itself."
Basically, postmodern science shies away from trying to create a 'unified truth' and rather focuses on the here and now and what is can be 'deduced' from that. The trouble is this leads to science by agreed consensus of observation and trust - rather than the traditional scientific approach of knowledge advancement by experimentation and proving of a hypothesis - i.e. the scientific method.
The ratio of output power to input power of the inverter.Search the Web for Power Conversion Efficiency
An association of interconnected electric systems in a region, often having an agreement to coordinate operations and plans for reliability improvements.Search the Web for Power Pool
The oldest rocks, generally more than 600 million years old.Search the Web for Precambrian Rock
The approach promoted under the Framework Convention of Climate Change
to help achieve stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the
atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous interference with the
Note: In essence this is the 'just in case' approach; the trouble with it is it assumes the cost of doing something is essentially 'free' compared to the future cost of not doing something. Rather the opportunity cost of doing something regardless is not clearly taken into account (i.e. could the money being spent now on inefficient energy sources to combat climate change have been better spent on further energy research that could ultimately lead to no real environmental pollution at all?) Everything has a cost.
Also the precautionary approach 'weakens' the need for more rigorous scientific principal based research; i.e. you just need to show (and not truthfully prove) a possible outcome to give support to the precautionary approach.
The tendency of the Earth's axis to wobble in space over a period of 23,000 years. The Earth's precession is one of the factors that results in the planet receiving different amounts of solar energy over extended periods of time.Search the Web for Precession
Refers to recycled material that came from the manufacturing process. Pre-consumer recycling of scraps and discards diverts waste that may otherwise end up in landfills, and reduces use of raw materials.
Deliberate setting and careful control of surface fires in forests to help prevent more destructive fires and to kill off unwanted plants that compete with commercial species for plant nutrients; may also be used on grasslands. Also known as 'back burning'.
The wind direction most frequently observed during a given period.Search the Web for Prevailing Wind
A percentage by which offered prices for recycled products are reduced for purposes of bid evaluation.Search the Web for Price Preference
Primary consumers are usually herbivores that feed on plants and fungus, which are in turn Primary Providers. Secondary consumers, on the other hand, are mainly carnivores, and prey on other animals. Omnivores, who feed on both plants and animals, can also be considered a secondary consumer.Search the Web for Primary Consumer
Energy embodied in natural resources (e.g. coal, crude oil, sunlight, uranium) that has not undergone any anthropogenic conversions or transformations.Search the Web for Primary Energy
That portion of a region's economy devoted to the extraction of basic materials (e.g., mining, lumbering, agriculture).Search the Web for Primary Sector
Variables that are an indirect measure of some combination of
climate-related variations back in time. These are used to determine
temperature in a time when the thermometer was not yet invented.
Examples include tree ring records, characteristics of corals, fraction
of melted ice, concentration of salts and acids and the load of pollen
trapped in air bubbles.
Note: Given these are indirect measures, the underlying accuracy of such measurements are not equivalent to direct measurement. Also the more indirect the measure (i.e. the more processes between what you are measuring and the temperature) the more inaccurate the representation of the temperature could be. Plus if one is not careful it is possible to 'cherry pick' your proxies to show (either knowingly or not) a pattern of temperatures not representative of the larger whole.
Able to rot quickly enough to cause odors and attract flies.Search the Web for Putrescible
A PV module is basically a solar photovoltaic module used in converting Sun light into electrical energy. They are usually manufactured as a sealed unit with a given output voltage and wattage rating. They are often grouped together to create a larger total power output.Search the Web for PV Module
An instrument used for measuring global solar irradiance.Search the Web for Pyranometer
This is the process used to create biochar.Search the Web for Pyrolysis