A heavy metal that accumulates in the environment.Search the Web for Cadmium
In agriculture, canola is a variety of the rapeseed plant from which oil is obtained.
It is a vegetable oil called rapeseed or canola oil and is high in mono-unsaturated fatty acid.Search the Web for Canola
Cap and Trade is a market-based policy tool for protecting human health
and the environment.
A cap and trade program first sets an aggressive cap, or maximum limit, on emissions. Sources covered by the program then receive authorizations to emit in the form of emissions allowances, with the total amount of allowances limited by the cap. Each source can design its own compliance strategy to meet the overall reduction requirement, including sale or purchase of allowances, installation of pollution controls, implementation of efficiency measures, among other options. Individual control requirements are not specified under a cap and trade program, but each emissions source must surrender allowances equal to its actual emissions in order to comply. Sources must also completely and accurately measure and report all emissions in a timely manner to guarantee that the overall cap is achieved.
Capacity factor is a ratio (usually expressed as a percentage) of power actually generated by an installed wind turbine compared to its theoretical maximum power output.
This is important as the available wind varies considerably by location and you want to pick a location that ensures maximum utilization. Although typically the maximum capacity factor achieved in practice is around 30%. This can be compared to the typical capacity factors of 15% for solar and nuclear which ranges in 60 to 100%. Base load thermal power plants (i.e. fire fired) often achieve 70 to 90%.
When capacity factor is combined with cost of production you get the effective cost of power production for a given energy producing technology; i.e. cost divided by capacity factor. This figure you can use as a basis for a ROI (Return on Investment) comparison.
An innovative form of car hire that allows club members to pick up cars from locations around a city and pay for use of a vehicle on an hourly basis.
The clubs say their cars are cheaper and easier to book than those of rental firms. Car clubs are also increasingly offer low emission cars, such as hybrid vehicles.Search the Web for Car Clubs
Carbon is the chemical element with symbol C and atomic
number 6. As a member of group 14 on the periodic table, it is nonmetallic
and tetravalent—making four electrons available to
form covalent chemical
bonds. There are three naturally occurring isotopes, with 12C
being stable, while 14C is radioactive, decaying with a half-life
of about 5730 years.
Carbon is one of the few
elements known since antiquity.
The name "carbon" comes from Latin language carbo, coal.
See the full entry on wikipedia
Carbon accounting procedures typically aim to measure and report on the emissions that a company is directly responsible for, but they can also track emissions that result from a firm's supply chain and the activities of its partners, customers and staff.
The practice is widely regarded as an essential first step towards cutting carbon emissions.
However, critics have argued that its effectiveness is undermined by an absence of international standards, which means that carbon calculations can be undertaken differently from organization to organization.Search the Web for Carbon Accounting
This is a form of life which uses carbon as a 'building block' in its cells and chemical processes. Basically all life (be it plant or animal) on Earth is 'carbon based' in one form or another.Search the Web for Carbon Based Lifeform
An amorphous form of carbon, produced commercially by thermal or oxidative decomposition of hydrocarbons and used principally in rubber goods, pigments, and printer's ink.Search the Web for Carbon Black
Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is an approach to mitigating global warming based on capturing carbon dioxide from large point sources such as fossil fuel power plants and permanently storing it away from the atmosphere.Search the Web for Carbon Capture And Storage
All parts (reservoirs) and fluxes of carbon. The cycle is usually thought of as four main reservoirs of carbon interconnected by pathways of exchange. The reservoirs are the atmosphere, terrestrial biosphere (usually includes freshwater systems), oceans, and sediments (includes fossil fuels). The annual movements of carbon, the carbon exchanges between reservoirs, occur because of various chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes. The ocean contains the largest pool of carbon near the surface of the Earth, but most of that pool is not involved with rapid exchange with the atmosphere.Search the Web for Carbon Cycle
The enhancement of the growth of plants as a result of increased atmospheric CO2 concentration. Depending on their mechanism of photosynthesis, certain types of plants are more sensitive to changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration.Search the Web for Carbon Dioxide Fertilization
It tends to act as an umbrella term for any attempt to measure greenhouse gas emissions and as a result can refer to simply the emissions that result from a single activity, such as flying; the emissions that result from an organization or building over the course of a year; or the full lifetime emissions of a product or organization, including emissions from the supply chain or disposal of resources.
While carbon footprints colloquially refer to the amount of CO2 emitted, the UK Carbon Trust endorses a wider definition and considers all six of the Kyoto Protocol greenhouse gases - Carbon dioxide, Methane, Nitrous oxide, Hydro fluorocarbons, Perfluorocarbons, and Sulfur hexafluoride - when measuring a carbon footprint.Search the Web for Carbon Footprint
Carbon Fraud is an aspect of global carbon markets.
Basically due to weak certification and validation processes in carbon markets, it is often quite easy to operate a 'fake' carbon offsetting business; i.e. claiming to run an offshore forest preservation scheme generating carbon credits when no such thing exists in reality (i.e. just pocket the money).
Also, due to the difficult nature of assessing exactly how much carbon some scheme or process offsets, you can also get fraud through over estimating the amount of carbon offset.
It is understood in some regions that organized crime has got involved in carbon markets, and that some markets have had to be suspended to investigate systematic fraud.
The relative amount of carbon emitted per unit of energy or fuels consumedSearch the Web for Carbon Intensity
The theory that policy measures designed to reduce CO2 emissions in one country or region will result in an increase in emissions in another country as carbon intensive firms relocate to areas with less demanding environmental regulations.
For example, it is feared that steel plants and other heavy industries faced with planned carbon pricing regulations in the US may move their operations to countries such as China or India that do not have carbon pricing schemes in an attempt to avoid increased costs.
As a result, carbon emissions could simply "leak" from one country to another, resulting in no net reduction in emissions.
The Kyoto Protocol and the EU Emissions Trading Scheme have both been accused of causing carbon leakage, although there is little solid evidence as yet of firms relocating solely as a result of carbon regulations.
One of the primary drivers for a global agreement to tackle climate change is the hope that an international deal would remove the risk of carbon leakage by establishing comparable carbon regulations for all countries.Search the Web for Carbon Leakage
A Carbon Market is a market created from the trading of carbon emission allowances to encourage or help countries and companies to limit their carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. This is also known as emissions or carbon trading. Carbon emissions trading is a way of offsetting greenhouse gases produced by polluters.
A colorless, odorless, poisonous gas produced by incomplete fossil fuel combustion.Search the Web for Carbon Monoxide
Particulate matter, solid or liquid, larger than a molecule but small enough to remain suspended in the atmosphere.Search the Web for Carbon Neutral
The reservoir containing carbon as a principal element in the geochemical cycle.Search the Web for Carbon Pool
Limiting the amount of carbon you use each year.Search the Web for Carbon Rationing
The uptake and storage of carbon. Trees and plants, for example, absorb carbon dioxide, release the oxygen and store the carbon. Fossil fuels were at one time biomass and continue to store the carbon until burned.
Carbon sequestration is usually a natural process although machine based techniques can be used to extract or prevent carbon from getting into the atmosphere and put it into long term storage.Search the Web for Carbon Sequestration
Carbon reservoirs and conditions that take in and store more carbon (carbon sequestration) than they release. Carbon sinks can serve to partially offset greenhouse gas emissions. Forests and oceans are common carbon sinks.Search the Web for Carbon Sinks
A compound consisting of one carbon atom and four chlorine atoms. It is an ozone depleting substance. Carbon tetrachloride was widely used as a raw material in many industrial applications, including the production of chlorofluorocarbons, and as a solvent.Search the Web for Carbon Tetrachloride
The sale and purchase of carbon credits or pollution permits through carbon markets.
The practice is designed to help control carbon dioxide emissions by placing a price on a ton of emitted CO2 and providing members of trading schemes with economic incentives to reduce the amount of pollution they produce.
The market is dominated by cap-and-trade schemes, such as the EU's emissions trading scheme, but carbon trading can also refer to the sale of carbon offsets from emission reduction projects.
In theory, carbon trading mechanisms mean that emission reductions are achieved at the lowest possible cost, as businesses will only purchase carbon credits - effectively paying someone else to cut emissions for them - if they can not deliver emission reductions at a lower cost themselves.Search the Web for Carbon Trading
Offering to reward a retailer for good environmental practices by organising people to shop at their store.Search the Web for Carrotmobbing
The amount of animal or plant life (or industry) that can be supported indefinitely on available resources; the number of individuals that the resources of a habitat can support. Also called biological carrying capacity.Search the Web for Carrying Capacity
A tasteless white protein distilled from milk and used in dessert toppings, coffee whiteners, adhesives and binders, paint, and plastics. Sensitivity to it plays a role in milk allergies, Asperger's Syndrome, and Autism.Search the Web for Casein
A sedimentation area designed to remove pollutants from runoff before being discharged into a stream or pond.Search the Web for Catch Basin
Filling or sealing compound used to make a home or building material more airtight or watertight.Search the Web for Caulk
Ceiling insulation is the use of a material to reduce the thermal conductivity (or basic heat transference) via the ceiling and into the space beyond it (namely the roof void). Most often this is achieved through the use of strips of material between the ceiling joists that are often several inches think. The material being able to trap a large amount of still air in relation to its size - this 'trapping' prevents the air transfering heat so prevents the heat loss from below.
Also when the roof space heats up during a hot day it similarly prevents the conduction of the heat into the living space below.
Wood used in building construction that is supplied from sources that comply with sustainable forestry practices, protecting trees, wildlife habitats, streams, and soil.Search the Web for Certified Wood
This term refers to tracking the custodianship of wood and wood products along the supply chain, from harvest to distribution of the final product. The purpose of a chain of custody system is to ensure that certified and other forest products originate in a responsibly managed forest. Special record keeping requirements relating to the purchase, shipment and delivery of products must always be maintained.Search the Web for Chain Of Custody
A chemical that controls pests by preventing reproduction.Search the Web for Chemosterilant
The lowering of the Earth's temperature because of increased particles in the air blocking the sun's raySearch the Web for Chilling Effect
Preparing croplands by using a special implement that avoids complete inversion of the soil as in conventional plowing. Chisel plowing can leave a protective cover or crops residues on the soil surface to help prevent erosion and improve filtration.Search the Web for Chisel Plowing
An organic solvent containing chlorine atoms that is often used as aerosol spray container, in highway paint, and dry cleaning fluids.Search the Web for Chlorinated Solvent
Manufactured without chlorine or chlorine derivatives.Search the Web for Chlorine Free
A family of chemicals composed primarily of carbon, hydrogen, chlorine, and fluorine; CFCs were used mostly as refrigerants for freezers, refrigerators, and air-conditioning units, and as industrial cleansing solvents primarily in the high-tech industry. They were also used as an expansion agent in the manufacture of isocyanurate thermal insulation, and some extruded polystyrene foam used for thermal insulation, and some extruded polystyrene foam used for thermal insulation products, and food service containers.
CFCs' ability to destroy stratospheric ozone through catalytic cycles contributed to the depletion of ozone worldwide. Because CFCs are such stable molecules, they do not easily react with other chemicals in the lower atmosphere. One of the few forces that can break up CFC molecules is ultraviolet radiation, however the ozone layer protects the CFCs from ultraviolet radiation in the lower atmosphere. CFC molecules can then to migrate intact into the stratosphere, where the molecules are bombarded by ultraviolet rays, causing the CFCs to break up and release their chlorine atoms. The released chlorine atoms participate in ozone destruction, with a single atom of chlorine destroying ozone molecules over and over again.
International attention to CFCs resulted in a meeting of diplomats from around the world in Montreal in 1987. A treaty was forged that called for drastic reductions in the production of CFCs. In 1990, diplomats met in London and voted to significantly strengthen the Montreal Protocol by calling for a complete elimination of CFCs by the year 2000.
A class of herbicides that may be found in domestic water supplies and cause adverse health effects.Search the Web for Chlorophenoxy
Clean Energy is energy which is produced without a negative impact on the environment. Essentially it is neutral in its production of pollution and its consumption of resources.Search the Web for Clean Energy
Blends or substitutes for gasoline fuels, including compressed natural gas, methanol, ethanol, and liquified petroleum gas.Search the Web for Clean Fuels
Alternative phrase for reverse graffiti.Search the Web for Clean Graffiti
Removing all the trees from a given area; a destruction of entire forests at a time.Search the Web for Clear-Cutting
A row of windows near the peak of the roof. Often used along with an open floor plan that allows the light to bounce throughout the building.Search the Web for Clerestory
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather over periods of time that range from decades to millions of years. It can be a change in the average weather or a change in the distribution of weather events around an average (for example, greater or fewer extreme weather events). Climate change may be limited to a specific region, or may occur across the whole Earth.
In recent usage, especially in the context of environmental policy, climate change usually refers to changes in modern climate. It may be qualified as anthropogenic climate change, more generally known as global warming.Search the Web for Climate Change
Climate Change housing refers to housing that has been designed to operate in a way that minimizes its impact in contributing to climate change through reducing the man made component of climate change.
Note: This does not automatically mean that a house so designed is 'green' or 'eco' over the longer term, rather it is focused on minimizing its man made climate change impact first; which can lead to it been green if done correctly. Basically one does not automatically lead to the other.
Note: Beware of carbon 'get rich quick' schemes; i.e. solar power offsetting, etc as these often only work with costly rebates (which a lot of governments are now pulling out of supplying on mass due to them not being financially sustainable over the longer term).
A Climate Change Skeptic is someone who believes, in the context of Climate Change, that the human influence on the climate has been dramatically overplayed compared to natural processes and other external influences (such as the Sun).
Note: It does not mean they do not believe that the climate changes, rather that the amount of that change due to human activity is over emphasized and too 'precise' given the limited time (a few hundred years) we have had to measure the climate compared to the age of the climatic system (millions of years).
Climate Control refers to the act of controlling the climate within a building and maintaining it over time.
Climate Control can be simple as controlling just the temperature via some form of basic air conditioning system; all the way through to a system that also manages humidity and actively filters the air.
Climate Disruption is essentially a 'rebranding' of AGW caused climate change or global warming to include a larger range of seemingly unusual climatic events to be attributed to mans' influence on the climate system.
Climate Disruption allows events that would otherwise appear to be totally unrelated to global warming, such as excessively cold winters, flooding and storms to be, in the end, attributed to global warming and Co2.
The basic problem with the term Climate Disruption is that it is often 'pinned' on climate events well before any meaningful research or analysis has been done to determine if this is indeed the cause.
Also the fact that we are now better able than any other previous point in history to observe all climatic events means we may be just measuring what passes for a 'normal' frequency and size of climatic events. Also we suspect the large changes in land use and increases in population densities have made what were previously 'normal' climatic events (such as flooding, earthquakes, storms, etc) a lot more damaging in their impact to a population and society. Therefore it is critical that fully analytical research be done on these events independent of the local impact to ascertain if there is indeed any climatic change as the root cause.
An atmospheric, oceanic, terrestrial, or other process that is activated by direct climate change induced by changes in radiative forcing. Climate feedbacks may increase (positive feedback) or diminish (negative feedback) the magnitude of the direct climate change.Search the Web for Climate Feedback
The delay that occurs in climate change as a result of some factor that changes only very slowly.Search the Web for Climate Lag
Particulate matter, solid or liquid, larger than a molecule but small enough to remain suspended in the atmosphere.Search the Web for Climate Model
Particulate matter, solid or liquid, larger than a molecule but small enough to remain suspended in the atmosphere.Search the Web for Climate Model
A climate outlook gives probabilities that conditions, averaged over a specified period, will be below normal, normal, or above normal.Search the Web for Climate Outlook
Climate Science is the study of the behaviour of the climate using scientific techniques to discover provable processes and actions within the climate and hence be able to:
The range of values the climate at a particular location can take over time.Search the Web for Climate Variability
Climategate refers to release/leak/stealing of emails, data and programs related to research into global warming by UEA's Climate Research Unit (CRU); that occurred in 2009 before the Copenhagen Climate Conference (and was therefore probably contributory to its failure). The information obtained was made publicly available for all to see and read through.
It indicates that there good reason to conclude:
A feedback is an enhancement (positive feedback) or a damping (negative feedback) of an initial change, but in this case in a climate system. For example, when less energy reaches the Earth, temperature decreases and the area covered by snow increases. The albedo of the planet decreases, reflecting more energy towards the atmosphere. Consequently less energy is available at the surface, and temperature further decreases. The whole "cycle" from the initial cooling to the further cooling is a feedback, which is a positive feedback in this example.Search the Web for Climatic Feedback Mechanisms
The vegetation that would exist in an area if growth had proceeded undisturbed for an extended period. This would be the "final" collection of plant types that presumably would remain forever, or until the stable conditions were somehow disturbed.Search the Web for Climax Vegetation
The increase in solar intensity caused by reflected irradiance from nearby clouds.Search the Web for Cloud Enhancement
Coalbed methane (CBM) or Coal Bed Methane or coalbed gas is a form of
natural gas extracted from coal beds. In recent decades it has become an
important source of energy in United States, Canada, and other
countries. Australia has rich deposits where it is known as coal seam
gas (abbreviated "CSG").
Original Wikipedia entry
Coeliac disease (spelled celiac
disease in North America) is an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine that
occurs in genetically predisposed people of all
ages from middle infancy onward. Symptoms include chronic diarrhoea, failure to thrive (in children), and fatigue, but these may be absent, and
symptoms in other organ
systems have been described. A growing portion of diagnoses are being made
in asymptomatic persons as a
result of increased screening; the
condition is thought to affect between 1 in 1,750 and 1 in 105 people in the
United States. Coeliac
disease is caused by a reaction to gliadin, a prolamin (gluten protein) found in wheat, and similar proteins found in the crops of the tribe Triticeae (which includes other
common grains such as barley and rye).
See Wikipedia full entry.
The sequential production of electricity and useful thermal energy from a common fuel source. Rejected heat from industrial processes can be used to power an electric generator (bottoming cycle). Conversely, surplus heat from an electric generating plant can be used for industrial processes, or space and water heating purposes (topping cycle).Search the Web for Cogeneration
Clusters of houses having shared dining halls and other spaces, encouraging stronger social ties while reducing the material and energy needs of the community.Search the Web for Cohousing
Bacteria, if present in sewage, indicate the possible presence of enteric pathogens of sewage origin. Fecal coliform bacteria, a subset of the total coliform bacteria group, indicate specifically the presence of fecal material.Search the Web for Coliform Bacteria
A photovoltaic device or module that provides useful heat energy in addition to electricity.Search the Web for Combined Collector
Two or more generation processes in series or in parallel, configured to optimize the energy output of the system.Search the Web for Combined Cycle
A combustion fire place in its simplest form is just a fire in a hearth that vents through a chimney to the outside world.
Although, technology has moved on and it is now possible to have a fire place with the following attributes:
This requires polluters to meet specific emissions-reduction targets and often requires the installation and use of specific types of equipment to reduce emissions.Search the Web for Command-and-control Regulation
Commercial Solar refers to the usage of Solar power by a commercial entity, typically a business, to reduce its dependence on the grid and thereby reduce its operational costs due to electricity.Search the Web for Commercial Solar
This is a solar power plant whose electricity is shared by more than one household. Often framed as an alternative to rooftop solar. It is also known as a solar garden or a shared renewable energy plant.Search the Web for Community Solar
Compact fluorescent light bulbs (CFLs) , are more energy efficient than standard incandescent light bulbs and last longer.Search the Web for Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs
The point where the amount of energy produced by photosynthesis equals the amount of energy released by respiration.Search the Web for Compensation Point
Any coal that emits less than 1.2 pounds of sulfur dioxide per million Btu when burned. Also known as low sulfur coal.Search the Web for Compliance Coal
Also called “engineered wood”; made of strands, particles, fibers, or veneers of wood bound with adhesives. Products include particle board, plywood, and medium-density fiberboard (MDF).Search the Web for Composite Wood
A product that can be placed into a composition of decaying biodegradable materials and eventually turn into a nutrient-rich material. It is synonymous with “biodegradable,” except it is limited to solid materials. (Liquid products are not considered compostable).Search the Web for Compostable
A human waste disposal system consisting of a toilet that uses little or no water connected to a specially built tank in which waste material is decomposed by aerobic bacteria.Search the Web for Composting Toilet
Concentrated solar power (also called Concentrating Solar power, Concentrated Solar Thermal, or just CSP) are systems that generate solar power by using mirrors or lenses to concentrate a large area of sunlight, or solar thermal energy, onto a small area. This often heats a medium (such as water) which is used to drive another process to convert the energy into electrical energy.Search the Web for Concentrated Solar Power
A photovoltaic module, which includes optical components such as lenses (Fresnel lens) to direct and concentrate sunlight onto a solar cell of smaller area. Most concentrator arrays must directly face or track the sun. They can increase the power flux of sunlight hundreds of times.Search the Web for Concentrator
Power generated through a final steam turbine stage where the steam is exhausted into a condenser and cooled to a liquid to be recycled back into a boiler.Search the Web for Condensing Power
The space of a building that is controllably heated or cooled, or both, for the comfort of its occupants.Search the Web for Conditioned Space
Easement restricting a landowner to land uses that that are compatible with long-term conservation and environmental values.Search the Web for Conservation Easement
Crop cultivation in which the soil is disturbed little (minimum-tillage farming) or not at all (no-till farming) to reduce soil erosion, lower labor costs, and save energy.Search the Web for Conservation-tillage Farming
The difference between the total quantity of water withdrawn from a source for any use and the quantity of water returned to the source; e.g., the release of water into the atmosphere; the consumption of water by humans, animals, and plants; and the incorporation of water into the products of industrial or food processing.Search the Web for Consumptive Use
A chemical that kills pests when it touches
them, instead of by ingestion. Also, soil that contains the minute skeletons of certain algae that scratch and dehydrate waxy-coated insects.
Global warming is the name given to the theory that there is increase in the average temperature of the Earth surface air and oceans since the mid-20th century and its projected continuation.
The exact mechanism of warming is not precisely understood, although it is strongly suspected that Greenhouse gases are to blame, as increasing concentrations of such gases help trap heat in the atmosphere and so raise mean temperatures.Search the Web for Continental Climate
Soil tilling method that follows the shape of the land to discourage erosion.Search the Web for Contour Plowing
A technique sometimes used in forest management, farming, prairie restoration or greenhouse gas abatement.Search the Web for Controlled Burning
The loss of color from a coral as it expels its zooxanthellae-usually a stress response.Search the Web for Coral Bleaching
An industry in which the creation and services of products is home based and not factory based. The products produced are often independent, one of a kind and not mass produced.Search the Web for Cottage Industry
The seed that comes from cotton plants and is used to produce cottonseed oil, which is then used to make environmentally friendly ink.
The schedule of the maturing and harvesting of seasonal crops.Search the Web for Crop Calendar
Crop rotation is when one grows a series of dissimilar types of crops in rotation, in the same area, in sequential seasons for various benefits such as to avoid the build up of pathogens and pests that often occurs when one species is continuously cropped. Crop rotation also seeks to balance the fertility demands of various crops to avoid excessive depletion of soil nutrients.
A traditional component of crop rotation is the replenishment of nitrogen through the use of green manure in sequence with cereals and other crops. It is one component of polyculture. Crop rotation can also improve soil structure and fertility by alternating deep-rooted and shallow-rooted plants
Crop rotation is practised by all sizes of farming, from the hobbyist to large farms.
Usually a conifer tree grown to provide wood products.Search the Web for Crop Tree
See cross ventilation for full definition.Search the Web for Cross Flow Ventilation
Cross ventilation is when a building is set up to utilize the natural winds that blow across a site to assist with cooling the building.
Simply put the windows are so placed and the internal structure of the property (i.e. placement of doors and open spaces) set up as to allow the easy movement of air from one side of the property to the other when the windows and doors are open; so ventilating the property essentially for free.
This is often a key component of passive solar and thermal mass design. In that during a hot Summer night the windows and doors can be opened to let in the cooler night air, this in turn cools the thermal mass, which the following day helps assist in keeping the property cool.
One of the interrelated components of the Earth's system, the cryosphere is frozen water in the form of snow, permanently frozen ground (permafrost), floating ice, and glaciers. Fluctuations in the volume of the cryosphere cause changes in ocean sea level, which directly impact the atmosphere and biosphere.Search the Web for Cryosphere
This refers to the nutrient enrichment of freshwater and marine environments resulting from the activities of humans.Search the Web for Cultural Eutrophication
A cloud type that is dense and vertically developed and is associated with rain (particularly of a convective nature).Search the Web for Cumulonimbus
A new eco friendly material made from carrots that can be used instead of glass fibre.Search the Web for Curran
A device that uses centrifugal force to remove large particles from polluted air.Search the Web for Cyclone Collector